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Boundary Expansion Scale (view article)

Please indicate your agreement with the following statements.

0 = not at all to 10 = very much.


When you read the story, did you experience…

  1. …Relationships between people that are different from relationships in your life?
  2. …What it might be like to relate others in ways different that you normally do yourself?
  3. …Getting to know people you would never otherwise know?
  4. …What it would be like to have skills and abilities that are different from your own?
  5. …What it would be like to have emotional and interpersonal skills that are different from your own?
  6. …Doing things the characters did, that you haven’t done before?
  7. …Being in a time or place other than where you are now?
  8. …Facing situations and challenges other than those in your own life?
  9. …What it was like to have someone else’s thoughts and feelings?
  10. …What it was like to be someone else (that is, one or more of the characters in the story)?


Note. Consists of dimensions of affiliation (items 1-3), agency (items 4-6), and autonomy (items 7-10) satisfaction.

Cite as: Johnson, B. K., Slater, M. D., Silver, N. A, & Ewoldsen, D. R. (2016). Entertainment and expanding boundaries of the self: Relief from the constraints of the everyday. Journal of Communication, 66, 386-408. doi:10.1111/jcom.12228



Following Motives Scale (FMS) (view article)

Please indicate your agreement with the following statements.

1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree


I follow some people on social media…

  1. so I can make fun of them when talking to others.
  2. so I can laugh about the setbacks they suffer.
  3. so I can derive pleasure from the stupid things they say or do.
  4. so I can gossip about them with others.
  5. so I can enjoy myself when I learn they fail or make a fool of themselves.
  6. because there is something addictive about being annoyed by them.
  7. so I can talk about their lives with others.
  8. because they show me that there is always someone who is worse off than me.
  9. because, although I dislike them, I find them intriguing.
  10. because they demonstrate that I am better off by comparison.
  11. because I want to know what they are doing, despite the fact I actually don’t like them.
  12. because they make me feel superior.
  13. because I want to know whether I am better or worse off than them.
  14. because I enjoy competing with them.
  15. because I’m more confident about talking to them online.
  16. because it’s safer to relate to them in an online setting.
  17. because I know they will say nice things about me.
  18. because I get along with them better in an online setting.
  19. because I know they will care about what I post.
  20. because I know they will like my posts.
  21. so I can observe them without them knowing.
  22. because I like to compare their achievements with my own.
  23. because I don’t want to hurt their feelings.
  24. because I feel socially obliged to do so.
  25. because I like their sense of humor.
  26. because they are funny.
  27. because they share great jokes.
  28. because they always have something interesting to tell.
  29. because we have a lot in common.
  30. because I like them.
  31. because they provide useful information on shared interests or hobbies.
  32. because I met them socially and want to learn more about them.
  33. because I know them from the past and want to keep in touch.
  34. because we have similar backgrounds.
  35. because they are friends and I want to know everything that happens in their lives.
  36. because they are a great source for news.
  37. so I can get a peek into their lives.
  38. because their accomplishments help me set goals to improve myself.
  39. because they provide a standard I can aspire to.
  40. because their achievements provide a source of inspiration for me.


Notes. Consists of separate subscales of antisocial motives (items 1-14), insecurity motives (items 15-24), sociable motives (items 25-37), and inspirational motives (items 38-40). Each subscale should be used independently. The phrase “social media” in the question stem can be customized to focus on particular SNSs or other platforms.

Cite as: Ouwerkerk, J. W., & Johnson, B. K. (2016). Motives for online friending and following: The dark side of social network site connections. Social Media + Society, 2, 1-13. doi:10.1177/2056305116664219.



Spoilers Scale (view article)

Please indicate your agreement with the following statements.

1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree


I know how the story is going to end.

The story’s ending is given away by the preview.

I don’t know how the story will end.*

The preview tells me what to expect in the story.

I will be surprised by what happens in the story.*


Note. Reversed items indicated by asterisks.

Cite as: Johnson, B. K., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (2015). Spoiler alert: Consequences of narrative spoilers for dimensions of enjoyment, appreciation, and transportation. Communication Research, 42, 1068-1088. doi:10.1177/0093650214564051



Narrative Processing Fluency Scale (view article)

Please indicate your agreement with the following statements.

1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree


The story was easy to follow.

I found it easy to understand the characters.

I understood what was going on.

It was easy to see why everything happened the way it did.


Cite as: Johnson, B. K., & Rosenbaum, J. E. (in press). (Don’t) tell me how it ends: Spoilers, enjoyment, and involvement in television and film. Media Psychology. doi:10.1080/15213269.2017.1338964



Dutch translations available upon request.